Campaigning From Prison
It was very, very dangerous during the time the US participated in World War I to speak out against the US’s forces in Europe. Eugene V. Debs was vehemently against the United State’s participation in World war I, and specifically the draft that was instituted to bolster the army’s numbers.
On June, 16, 1918, Debs gave a speech in Canton, Ohio, where he urged workers to resist the military draft. This was a violation of a new law that was passed in 1917 called the Espionage Act of 1917. It made sedition a crime punishable by up to 20 years in prison and a $10,000 fine. Sedition was then defined as anything that spread false news for the American military forces with the intent to disrupt operations. It was then further added onto by the Sedition act of 1918, which made it a crime to make any statement criticizing the United States Government.
While these laws were largely repealed by 1921, they were held up in court. Debs was in found guilty of 10 counts of sedition and sentenced to 10 years in prison. He started his sentence in April of 1919. During his trial he made a speech that is to this day very famous. He said:
“Your honor, I have stated in this court that I am opposed to the form of our present government; that I am opposed to the social system in which we live; that I believe in the change of both but by perfectly peaceable and orderly means….
Your honor, I ask no mercy, I plead for no immunity. I realize that finally the right must prevail. I never more fully comprehended than now the great struggle between the powers of greed on the one hand and upon the other the rising hosts of freedom.”
At his sentencing hearing in November of 1918, he made what is considered his most famous quote:
“Your Honor, years ago I recognized my kinship with all living beings, and I made up my mind that I was not one bit better than the meanest on earth. I said then, and I say now, that while there is a lower class, I am in it, and while there is a criminal element, I am of it, and while there is a soul in prison, I am not free.”
Debs eventually made his appeal to the United States Supreme Court, where his conviction was upheld. It seems the decision was based mostly on Debs views on the draft, and his comments urging working Americans to dodge the draft in any way possible.
His conviction led to wide-spread protests. A large protest in Cleveland, Ohio led by Charles Ruthenberg on May 1, 1919 led to the May Day Riots of 1919, where 2 people died, and 116 people were arrested. Order was only obtained when the police brought in horses, army trucks, and tanks.
Debs was considered for clemency by President Woodrow Wilson in 1919, but he was advised against it. He then wrote: “While the flower of American youth was pouring out its blood to vindicate the cause of civilization, this man, Debs, stood behind the lines sniping, attacking, and denouncing them….This man was a traitor to his country and he will never be pardoned during my administration.”
It wouldn’t be until 1921 when President Harding was in office, that Debs’ sentence would be commuted and he would be released from prison.
While in prison, Debs did something he had done four times before, but never with those conditions. He ran for president. Even more surprising is that he received quite a bit of support. He received almost a million votes, which added up to around 3.4 percent. While it wasn’t his best showing, he was in prison, so it was fairly impressive nonetheless.
Socialism was very unpopular, as you might expect, after World War II ended. And while the party would be around for many years in different forms, being an outright socialist in the modern age is much more taboo than it ever was in Debs time. Debs, unlike many other politicians did not let the label of socialist bring him down, but instead embraced it to further his goals. Whether he would be able to do the same today is debatable.