The Great Unknowns: 6 of the Best Military Commanders You Probably Haven’t Heard Of

Alexsandr Suvorov. Battle Brotherhood

When it comes to discussing the greatest military generals of all time, most people will opt for Alexander the Great, Julius Caesar or Napoleon. History is littered with the names of well-known commanders who achieved great victories and overcame seemingly impossible odds. In this article, I will look at lesser known military geniuses and shed light on their careers. While hardcore history lovers will doubtless have heard of all six, some of the names should be new to a large proportion of readers.

1 – Belisarius (505 – 565)

Flavius Belisarius is one of the greatest Byzantine generals and served under the reign of Justinian I. He was born in 505 and probably educated amongst Thracian peasants according to Edward Gibbon. The historian refers to Belisarius as the ‘Africanus of new Rome’ because of his success in reclaiming African provinces for the Empire. Unlike Scipio, Belisarius did not have the advantage of noble origin to help him along the way.

Belisarius Under The Walls of Rome by AMELIANVS. Deviant Art

He began his career as a bodyguard to Justinian before the great ruler became emperor. Belisarius is credited with developing the bucellarii which was a new type of heavy cavalry armed with a sword, lance, and bow. The flexibility of this new fighting force ensured it was the best cavalry of the age. Justinian appointed Belisarius as leader of the empire’s border forces with Persia. It was a big risk because Belisarius was just 22 and while he had shown talent, he was completely untested as a military commander.

It was a masterstroke as he destroyed the Persians at Dara in 530 despite being outnumbered by at least 2:1. During this battle, he anticipated the enemy attack and dug covered ditches which the Persians plunged into during their cavalry charge. The Eternal Peace was signed between the two powers in 532 although it only lasted eight years. Belisarius was recalled to Constantinople that year, after his reputation had been damaged by a defeat at Callinicum in 531.

Upon his return to the capital, Belisarius was quickly called into action to crush a rebellion against Justinian in Nika. He was rewarded with command of the empire’s forces in its quest to reclaim African provinces lost to the Vandal kingdom. Within a year, he achieved his objective; this campaign included a brilliant victory in a battle where he was outnumbered 3:1. By now, Justinian had decided to reclaim as much of the Western Roman Empire as possible and ordered Belisarius to attack the Ostrogoths in Italy. He took Naples in 535 and Rome in 536. After defending Rome successfully, Belisarius took Ravenna in 540 and the Ostrogoths asked him to be their king! He refused, but a wary Justinian recalled his general as soon as possible.

Rome was retaken by the Goths soon after Belisarius left so he returned and beat them once again to reclaim Rome and depose the emperor the Goths had installed. His progress was hampered by a lack of supplies and an outbreak of the plague, so the campaign fizzled out. Belisarius was recalled to Constantinople yet again. His last campaign took place in 559 when he repelled the Bulgar attack on the capital. He was convicted of corruption and put in prison in 562; the charges against him were almost certainly false. Justinian pardoned him and made him a favorite at the imperial court. After several years of quiet retirement, Belisarius died in 565. He is one of the few commanders to have achieved military success on three different continents.

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  • RichPorardo

    Ah . . . the “Religion of Peace” and it’s true beginnings. WWJD

    • sfthomas

      you mekong no sense on this one

    • makkabee

      You mean how after the Christian Byzantines executed Muslim ambassadors, Muhammad decided to punish the terrorists?

      You don’t seem bothered by the Christian generals on the list. One thing Jesus probably wouldn’t do is be a hypocritical bigoted jackass like you, Rich.

      • John Erik Anderson

        There you have it, the “intellectual” using his big words, decides to chime in. People like you never see the big picture. Kinda sad.

        • makkabee

          Ah. that special reverse snobbery that insists your ignorance is somehow superior to other people’s knowledge. How cliche.

          • Gene Spence

            How’s your Love Life, Makkabee? Gott’em all ona String? haha

      • Mad_MikeII

        You need to bone up on your history. The crusades occurred as a result of Muslim aggression – Jews and Christians were there long before Islam exsisted. In fact, it goes back farther than that. If you delve into the history of that part of the world, and I mean before Islam was even around, people from that part of the world have been trying to conquer Europe for the last 2,500 years, starting with Darius I of the Persian Empire, on through to Al-Walid I of the Umayyad Caliphate, to the present day. All one has to do is look at the history the people of “the religion of peace” had with one other, not exactly a lot of love and harmony going on there…

        • AtoZ

          Muslims were not the cause of the crusades, they held the ‘holy land’ that the crusaders wanted and when they took over, they slaughtered all the Jews AND Muslims. If your comments were true they wouldn’t have slaughtered the Jews as well

          • Art

            Yes, the Muslims had conquered the Holy Land, and many other Christian and Western lands when the armies of the “Prophet” burst out of Arabia, destroying everything in their path. The Crusades were a long overdue counterattack which unfortunately failed in the end, so ultimately many Western and Christian lands remained occupied and do so to this day. Of course the Muslims are the cause of the Crusades. The only cause.

          • The Romans destroyed Jerusalem and put the Jews in exile. The Muslims did spread all the way across North Africa and the Levant. They fought local leaders, most often Bedouins and other tribal or local leaders. Generally, in the “Holy Land,” the Christians and Jews were allowed to practice their religion, and Europeans could do pilgrimage to Jerusalem. The Pope, egged on by the wealthy city-state of Venice, which wanted political control of the trade routes, declared jihad– er, Holy War– against Jerusalem. When the Crusaders took the town, they slaughtered the Muslims and the Jews who lived there. Christianity: a religion of peace. By the way, when Saladin beat the Christian army, they were all allowed to go peacefully. No massacre.

          • Art

            “The Romans destroyed Jerusalem and put the Jews in exile.” True. And?

            Yes, the Muslims spread across North Africa, fighting the Byzantines and local leaders, and many others. They took most of Spain and almost took France before being driven back at Tours. It took the Spanish about 700 years to force them out and get their country back. In the East they destroyed Persia and pushed into India, putting to the sword entire cities that wouldn’t convert and without exaggeration, killed millions. Conversion by the sword was also common throughout the Middle East. All of North Africa was Christian before the armies of the Prophet ripped through them, though often conversion was through legal coercion with the threat of the sword in the background.

            In 1071 the Byzantine army was defeated at Manzikert by the Muslims and Constantinople asked for help from the West. It was slow in coming–it took 20 years–but it did come. It still wasn’t enough and infighting among the Christians and lack of support from Europe did them in eventually.

            Did the Crusaders conduct atrocities? Yes, you mentioned the Sack of Jerusalem. The worst was the sack of Constantinople in 1204, which Byzantium never recovered from, leaving them vulnerable. However, the abuses and blood the Crusaders spilled was a stream compared to the oceans spilled by the Islamic armies, especially in India but also throughout the Middle East. Yes, there were abuses of Christianity by the Crusaders but they were abuses. They were contrary to the tenets and practice of the faith. Islam on the other hand spread by the sword. Violence was key to its rise even in the days of Muhammed. Holy war and violence were central to it. They were not abuses of Islam or contrary to it.

        • Luke Sandman

          Please try to remember that some people gey their info/marching orders
          from CNN

        • makkabee

          “The crusades occurred as a result of Muslim aggression.” Ha-ha! Christians and Muslims had been attacking each other for centuries. The fighting in Anatolia turned decisively in favor of the Muslims after Manzikert,, but not long before that the Byzantines had been on the offensive in Syria, and Christians spent a fair chunk of the 11th century on the offensive in Spain and Sicily.

          I’ve done university-level work on this very subject, so when you say “bone up on your history,” I say “fuck you, you arrogant pig-ignorant asshole.”

          • cole leblanc

            funny you mention Spain and Sicily. both solidly christian states before Islam brought its peace(convert or die) to town. islam is the obvious aggressor all over the midevil world. admittedly Islamn was for a very brief time the more advanced of the two and even showed signs of humanity, but that was short-lived. and then began its devolution into the murderous cult of animals they are today

          • makkabee

            Muslims invaded Sicily at the invitation of one faction in a civil war there. But the main point you resolutely ignore as you march behind your double standard is that Christians invaded non-Christian and mixed-faith lands all the time, and have a long record of expelling or converting at swordpoint the people they conquered.

            A bunch of deeply ignorant or flat-out dishonest people here are trying to pretend Islam is a religion of war and Christianity is a religion of peace when both have long and extremely bloody histories of religious warfare, and any HONEST standard by which you’d condemn Islam as a faith condemns Christianity too.

          • cole leblanc

            man you ignore the nose on your face. there are no teachings of love and forgiveness in Islam, there is no repentance of sins , there is only the tenant to world domination and the destruction of any who oppose it. that is taught in every mosque on earth from its inception till today, specifically Jews and Christians are targeted, that is mainstream Islam not some radical sect. nowhere in modern times has Christianity approved of or engaged in such practices. say what you will Islam is evil to its core

          • makkabee

            I don’t know if you’re lying or just stupid. Don’t much care, either.

          • makkabee

            Christian and Muslim states both attacked each other pretty much whenever the opportunity offered itself during the Middle Ages and Renaissance. You’re too much of a bigot to get away from the double standard of only holding Muslims accountable, though.

            You’re far too pickled in your own hate to grasp that, though.

          • cole leblanc

            based on what? because you say i am? there is no Christian doctrine for murder but there is plenty of it in islam. in fact it is the core of islam. i am no more a bigot than you are a rational thinking person.

      • Joseph Beck

        While Christianity does have flaws in think the main point is that Islam was founded on conquest, Christianity was not. There are major differences when it comes to origins and doctrine

        • Tell that to Constantine. To Charles Martel. To Charlemagne. To Charles V. To the Holy Roman Emperors. Christianity quickly became the state religion of Rome. How was Constantine converted? He saw a vision of God promising him victory in battle if he converted. Every religion has flaws. You want to Stone adulterers to death? The Bible does.

          • Art

            Charles Martel is most noted for stopping the Islamic advance, not conquering for Christianity.

            The difference lies in the founding of the two faiths. Jesus never killed anyone, never waged war or preached war, nor did his followers for centuries. Violence on any kind of scale in the name of Christianity didn’t occur for 300 years after the death of its founder. Constantine, as you noted. Muhammed on the other hand personally killed and raped and sacked in the name of spreading his new found faith, something his successors continued. These weren’t abuses but part of the faith.

            Yes, the Bible called for stoning adulterers but no one has seriously proposed that for many centuries and no one does it. This is still done TODAY in many Islamic countries, not to mention killing homosexuals, killing apostates, cutting off the hands of thieves, etc. Yes, every religion has flaws but Islam’s are still front and center and practiced. And many Muslims would say those aren’t flaws. That must change.

          • cole leblanc

            very true killing Christians and Jews is a cornerstone of Islam , it is an act that Muslims believe will be rewarded with virgins and riches, the stated mission of Islam is world domination and the establishment of a world caliphate. this is not extreme rhetoric but core principals of the cult

          • Joseph Beck

            What did Jesus says about casting stones again? We are talking about Christianity, meaning Jesus’s teachings. You can try to paint false equivalencies all day and I’m not saying that some that followed him didn’t do terrible acts and try to justify them by religion, but Jesus himself never converted anybody at the point of a sword, Muhammad did.

          • Joseph M. Callan

            Here’s the difference. Islam STILL stones adulterers to death. Christianity does not.

        • allforfunnplay

          seriously? look up the history of Clovis I and later Charlemagne. They’re reason the non-Roman areas of Western Europe became Christian. The Saxons were converted at the point of a sword.

          • Joseph Beck

            So Jesus founded Christianity at the point of a sword and attacked nearby tribes and once they were conquered gave them the choice to convert or die? No, sorry that was Mohammad.

          • allforfunnplay

            I don’t give a fig about the mythological founders of their respective cults turned “religions”. the point is that through out their histories BOTH religious cultures expanded at the point of a sword…or do you believe those Germanic Vikings (like the Saxons….see “Bloody Verdict of Verden”) just up and decided to follow ole Yeshua Bin Yahweh???

            btw.

            He said to them, “But now if you have a purse, take it, and also a bag; and if you don’t have a sword, sell your cloak and buy one.”
            — Luke 22:36, NIV

            “Do not suppose that I have come to bring peace to the earth. I did not come to bring peace, but a sword.
            -Matthew 10:34

          • cole leblanc

            you must travel centuries into the past to find these things done in the name of Christ. As for Mohamed and Allah , meh not so long, like right fucking now.

    • PMR

      You do see the irony of singling out the follower of Islam when three of these were Christian? That is known as confirmation bias.

  • Garntay Alfheim

    Didn’t talk about Oleg or Rurik, the founders of Georgia and the Ukraine, and how they stopped the Khanate from moving west into Europe. The eastern vikings were so influential, American SEALs, Spetznatz, and SAS special forces adopted the small unit tactics with much success…

  • Garntay Alfheim

    The Varangians, Nordic mercenaries in some cases fought for the Muslims if the price was right, and the Kievan Rus (Eastern Vikings) fought against anyone going into their lands to maintain the Volga trade route. The Kievan Rus allied with the Poles, Pechinegs, Bulgars, and others in that area of eastern Europe, while continuing dual kngships in Scandinavia and the British Aisles or France…

  • Luke Sandman

    Hey…. I have a novel idea. How about any of you people posting in the defense of Islam try going there for 3+ years as I have and tell me all about your viewpoint when(if) you return

    • Gaetano

      Where is Islam and how do you get there?

      • Gene Spence

        It’s all around you. Just look for ragheads, hairy brown frowny faces.

        • Hilary D. Lawrence

          Some people have zero class or respect. Not all Muslims are the same and most mainstream Muslims do not like ISIS. Most Muslims are not terrorists.

          • slick3278 .

            Keep drinking that Kool aide.

    • slick3278 .

      3 years? LOL they would not last 3 months.

  • This article turned into troll food in record time.

  • Eric van Tassell

    belisarious, he’s the guy who produced NCIS!

    • Gene Spence

      Good ! Good….ole Donald P. done good, didn’t he ?

  • Vlad Polchaninoff

    So Suvorov “was sent to fight the Turks during the First Russo-Turkish War (1868-1874)” … quite a feat, since he died in 1800.

    • Patrick Lynch

      Of course it should 1768-1774; amended.

  • Jd Creager

    As you read the Quran you can see how Mohammad was ailing from Syphilis, the deeper it not he book you read the worse and more horrid his actions

  • John3

    I lived in SAUDI ARABIA for two years, with my wife and adult daughter. I drove myself and my family all over Riyadh. We went to malls, grocery stores, hospitals, many tourist attractions, banks, restaurants, etc. My family and I drove to Jeddah, a 10-11 hour trip each way, to pick up my rescued dog. We have another from Riyadh. Both of the dogs came back with us and are part of our family.

    I traveled all over the Kingdom. I drove to most of the Cities and flew to the more distant places, then drove to other cities. I have been to the border with YEMEN (2014) and IRAQ (2015).

    I have many friends from the Kingdom, most are Saudi, but others are from: SYRIA, YEMEN, EGYPT, JORDAN, SUDAN, PAJISTAN, INDIA, INDONESIA, PHILIPPINES, and other places. I have been in Arabs homes, met their families, exchanged gifts, celebrated marriages, births of children, and the grief of the death of loved ones.

    While we were there, we traveled to QATAR, BAHRAIN, UNITED ARAB EMIRITES (Dubai-twice, and Abu Dahbi). Our other daughter and her husband visited for a month, and traveled with us to UAE, before they return to the USA.

    My family and I would go back to the Middle East again, if an opportunity arose.

    We felt safer in The Kingdom than in many US Cities.

    The people are friendly toward Westerners, British and Americans in particular. To my surprise, Saudis are very accepting of Christians. Many of my Arabs co-worker wished me a Merry Christmas and Easter on the appropriate days.

    Most of the holidays in The Kingdom are religious. The one I found most interesting was in rememberance of God/Allah parting of the Red Sea to aid the Jews in escaping from EGYPT.

    Yes the punishments are harsh, but there is almost no crime. Their death penalty is barbaric, by Western Standards, but went it comes to the Death Penalty can you really quibble over the method? Dead is dead. Once the US abolishes the death penalty, then I would listen to those cries of protest.

    Women’s rights are restrictive by Western Standards, but they are changing almost daily.

    60-70% percent of the population is under 40. They want a modern society. There are religious extremists that want to maintain society in the year 700, but the are a dwindling minority.

    The Saudis support Sunni against Shia everywhere. Iran does the opposite. This is a proxy war which has gone on since the 1979 Iranian Revolution, in our modern age, much longer in historical terms, but nations didn’t exist. The current struggle in IRAQ & SYRIA, which has brought terrorist attacks to The Kingdom, has show the Government the futility of such actions.

    In the past few years, SAUDI ARABIA has become a strong regional power, and is creating unified, mostly Arab, joint military entities, to take on Radical Islamic Terrorism. There are active joint Military actions, backed with material and logistics support from the US, UK and FRANCE, in YEMEN, SYRIA, & IRAQ, with on-going discussions for addition actions in LIBYA, and elsewhere. The West benefits from this effort, as any Western Military Action in the Middle East is a Huge Recruiting Tool for the Terrorist Groups.

    In IRAQ, SAUDI ARABIA and IRAN, along with the West, find themselves fighting on the same side, granted not for the same reasons. Progress is possible.

    I can tell you from personal experience that People in SAUDI ARABIA want the same things for their families as we all do. Many Saudis have been educated in Europe or North America. They have experienced Western lifestyles and want their country to adopt many of those ways, albeit on a contolled schedule, slow to Western eyes, to avoid religious backlash.

    I dismiss this blanket hatred of Islam and Muslims, and believe it is generated by racism and fear, defined to keep our endless wars going for the benefit of corporations and the wealthy. I suggest you read 1894, Animal Farm or watch a movie called Canadian Bacon.

    Some movies I would suggest you watch include: The Kingdom, Body of Lies, Rendition, Hologram for the King and others that escape me right now.

    The best idea would be for people to travel to the Middle East, or become involved with your local Muslim Communities. It’s more difficult to hate entire groups of people if you actually know a number of them well enough to call them friend.

    Sorry for the long post, but I had a bit to say.